Information of COVID-19（１） by SHARE 2020.03.30
１．Common history of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19)
（Japan Primary Care Association）
- The patients develop cold-like symptoms (fever, cough, sputum, sore throat, runny nose, etc.) and have strong fatigue, after an incubation period of about 5 days (1-14 days),
- Some patients may have gastrointestinal symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea,
- The symptoms are last for about 7 days,
- 80% of patients are mild and recover spontaneously, 20% of patients have severe pneumonia, and hospitalization is required, 5% of patients may require intensive care and respiratory treatment,
- In particular, senior citizens, people with underlying health conditions and pregnant women may develop pneumonia immediately after onset,
- Beware that if the disease becomes severe, it will quickly worsen and may lead to death.
＊ It is difficult to diagnose only with the symptoms because the symptoms are similar to flu and cold.
２．If you feel concerned about COVID-19
- If you have a fever of 37.5 degrees or higher, stay home and refrain from immediately consulting medical consultation.
- Avoid going out unnecessary.
- If you (general population) feel strong fatigue, difficulty in breathing, or have no urine, consult with Call Centers for Japanese Returnees and Potential Contacts at each prefecture. If the consultation center suspects that you have been infected with the virus, it will introduce you to an available medical institution with COVID-19 testing ad treatment.
- The contact numbers in each prefecture are listed in the URL below.
- Senior citizens, persons with underlying health conditions, and pregnant women have symptoms for two days, consult with Call Centers for Japanese Returnees and Potential Contacts at each prefecture.
- If your symptoms persist for four days, consult with the Call Centers for Japanese Returnees and Potential Contacts at each prefecture.
- You may refer to the Tokyo metropolitan COVID-19 website in the URL below.
3．Testing of COVID-19
- The diagnosis test is PCR (a method of detecting and increasing the amount of virus). PCR screening is now covered by health care insurance to facilitate the necessary tests for patients. Call Centers for Japanese Returnees and Potential Contacts (available 24 hours) suggest necessary to conduct screening. The patients become eligible to request a test directly from one of the private-sector screening institutions without going through a public health center.
- If the result is positive, almost 99% can be said to be an infected with Novel coronavirus as a definitive diagnosis. If it is negative, 30-70% of people do not mean that he/she is not infected. Thus, if symptoms persist, a repeated test is needed.
4．Reasons for the spread of new coronavirus infections
- The virus can spread from person to person through small droplets from the nose or mouth, which are spread when a person with COVID-19 coughs or exhales. These droplets land on objects and surfaces around the person. Other people then catch COVID-19 by touching these objects or surfaces, then touching their eyes, nose, or mouth. People can also catch COVID-19 if they breathe in droplets from a person with COVID-19 who coughs out or exhales droplets.
- Some spread might be possible before people show symptoms.
- 10-20 % of people with COVID-19 experience no symptoms at all and many people experience only mild symptoms. This is particularly true in the early stages of the disease. It is, therefore, possible to catch COVID-19 from someone who has, for example, just a mild cough and does not feel ill.
- If you are healthy, you only need to wear a mask if you are taking care of a person with suspected COVID-19 infection. Wear a mask if you are coughing or sneezing. Masks are effective only when used in combination with frequent hand-cleaning with alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water.
- If you wear a mask, then you must know how to use it and dispose of it properly. <
- Normal masks are less effective because viruses can pass through.
5．To prevent COVID-19 infection
Refrain from activities in the places where the following three conditions were met simultaneously:
- Closed space with poor ventilation,
- Crowded with many people and
- Conversations and vocalization in close proximity (within arm's reach of one another)
Written by Nakasa and Koto